Land Title: Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions, Fourth Edition Authors: Michael I. McKinney, Robert M. Schoch, Logan Yonavjak
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Practice Quizzes

Please read each question and select your answer from the choices provided. You must complete all of the questions in order to view your results.

1:  Which of the following statements is true about the history of a population?
A: Populations grow only if the individual organisms produce large numbers of offspring.
B: Populations that exhibit a pyramid-shaped age structure tend to grow slowly.
C: The carrying capacity of a population of organisms is usually initially exceeded by an overshoot.
D: The carrying capacity of a population is determined primarily by the intrinsic rate of population growth.

2:  Which gas was probably absent when life began on earth?
A: oxygen
B: hydrogen
C: methane
D: ammonia

3:  A one-celled animal lives in the gut of termites. The gut gives the one-celled animal a home and the one-celled animal digests cellulose for the termite which it cannot do for itself. The phenomenon described is one of
A: parasitism.
B: commensalism.
C: amensalism.
D: mutualism.

4:  Which of the following seems to be true of population decline?
A: More than 99 percent of all species are alive today.
B: Population decline is inevitable.
C: Extinction is usually caused by increased predation.
D: Humans have been responsible for most extinctions.

5:  Which of the following may be (according to the authors) the single most important human intervention that has produced a population growth of a particular species?
A: competitive release
B: increase of available resources
C: predator release
D: introduction of nonnative species.

6:  Which of the following is the most likely explanation of why only a few species seem to have dominance in natural communities?
A: lack of predators
B: high rates of reproduction
C: resource partitioning
D: first to populate the area

7:  In contrast to earlier communities, climax communities
A: are more species diverse.
B: are more productive.
C: contain faster growing species.
D: exhibit primarily density-independent controls.

8:  Which of the following statements about human disturbances of communities is true?
A: Humans tend to simplify communities.
B: Most species of plants that humans cultivate can be found in climax communities.
C: Monoculture development can diversify a given area.
D: When humans destroy communities, the abundance of all species decreases.

9:  In biomass pyramids
A: carnivores make up the largest mass.
B: most energy is lost moving from one trophic level to the next.
C: photosynthetic organisms are found at the peak of the pyramid.
D: first-order consumers are found above second-order consumers.

10:  Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest net primary productivity?
A: tropical rain forests
B: estuaries
C: reefs
D: open ocean

11:  If 0.1 percent of all sunlight that hits the earth is captured by plants but plants are only 2 percent efficient in processing that energy, what percentage of the sun''s light that hits the earth do the plants actually make use of?
A: 0.00002
B: 0.0002
C: 0.002
D: 0.02

12:  According to Table 3-5 which ecosystem has the greatest net productivity per unit area? The greatest total net productivity?
A: Tropical rain forest; open ocean
B: Swamp and marsh; tropical rain forest
C: Open ocean; tropical rainforest
D: Open ocean; continental shelf

13:  The six elements most important and abundant to life include
A: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
B: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, and sulfur
C: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus
D: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, potassium, and calcium

14:  The most common element in the earth''s crust is
A: carbon.
B: oxygen.
C: hydrogen.
D: nitrogen.

15:  Most carbon resides in the
A: atmosphere.
B: lithosphere.
C: biosphere.
D: hydrosphere.

16:  Phosphorus has a very slow cycling time because
A: most of it is on the ocean floor.
B: it is too heavy to be easily transported.
C: it does not form a gas and it does not readily combine with other substances.
D: it is a rare element and not readily subject to large quantity movements.

17:  The limiting nutrient in most ecosystems is
A: oxygen.
B: phosphorus.
C: nitrogen.
D: carbon.

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Link: Jones and Bartlett Publishers